Islamic Legal Aspect of Insurance in Indonesia

Zahry Vandawati Chumaidah, Fiska Silvia Raden Roro, Hilda Yunita Sabrie

Abstract


The validity of the contract in insurance transactionwasdebatable, especially among Muslim scholars in Indonesia.  The differences of legal oponion about insurance’s validity contract among the jurists will be never end due the jurists in one side say it is allowed and valid, whereas on the other side they say it prohibited and deny its validity of the contract. Even more, one of the legal pronouncement of Indonesian Councils (Fatwa MUI) prohibit conventional insurance for several reasons, one of them due to it contains elements of riba. Therefore, on its development, insurance company provides insurance services and products which the results of the contemporary scholars thought due to the need of public for insurance by applying Islamic values and has eliminated the  elements that are prohibited by Islamic jurisprudence. Further more, insurance companies issued a product of Islamic insurance in order harmonizing the principles of sharia. Islamic insurance or based on sharia is more social nuanced than profit oriented, based on the aspect of mutual helps serve. Eventually, The Councils pronounced fatwa of the Indonesian Council of Ulama (MUI) NO: 21 / DSN-MUI / X / 2001 on Takaful guidelines and fatwa DSN MUI NO: 52 / DSN-MUI / III / 2006 concerning wakalah bil ujrah contract (al ‘aqd) on sharia and reinsurance of sharia. The type of insurance contract based on Islamic economic pprinciples, inter alia mudarabah, hibah, ta'awun, and  tabarru 'funds. The main purpose of Takaful is a mutual protection among the fellows with the concept of mutual by closing the losses from danger or disaster. In fact, there are still conventional ways has used in Takaful insurance in Indonesia. The transaction has claim to be used  terms mudharabah contract or profit sharing as suggested in Islamic principle in contract, but in nits implementation, the takaful companies do not develop the business to manage customer funds.


Keywords


Legal Aspect, Insurance, Islamic Law

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References


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